1. In 1950, the newly established Communist regime in China invaded Tibet, which was rich in natural resources and had a strategically important border with India.
With 40,000 Chinese troops in its country, the Tibetan government
was forced to sign the "Seventeen Point Agreement" which recognised China's rule in return for promises to protect Tibet's political system and Tibetan Buddhism.
"Treaties and similar agreements concluded under the use or threat of force are invalid
under international law ab initio". Therefore, this Agreement is not considered legal by those who consider Tibet as an independent state before its signing; but it is considered legal by those who deny Tibet's independence. In either case the PRC did not
abide by the agreement.
Tibet was not ruled by the Chinese government prior to the 1950 invasion. In 1912, the 13th Dalai Lama - Tibet's political and spiritual leader - issued a proclamation reaffirming Tibet’s independence and the country maintained
its own national flag, currency, stamps, passports and army. It signed international treaties and maintained diplomatic relations with neighbouring countries.
In 1950, many states that are today stable democracies were undemocratic and did not respect
human rights. The 14th Dalai Lama was a teenager when his country was invaded and was never able to govern Tibet independently. In exile, he has won the Nobel Peace Prize and has entirely democratised the exiled Tibetan government. In contrast, the Chinese
government continues to have no democratic authority or interest in democratic inclusion.
‘It’s true that whilst Tibet maintained a unique culture, written and spoken language, religion and political system for centuries, it has never been
a nation-state in the modern sense of the word.
At times in its long past, Tibet has influenced and been influenced by various foreign powers, including Britain and the Mongols, as well as China.
However, the Chinese government’s claim
that Tibet has been part of China for around 800 years isn't supported by the facts.
From a legal point of view Tibet remains an independent state under illegal occupation, a fact that China wishes it could whitewash from history.
The TAR has
autonomy in name only. In reality, the most senior political position there has never been occupied by a Tibetan and Beijing is in charge. The official language is Chinese, with many Tibetan children losing their ability to speak and write Tibetan. Resistance
to China's rule - from singing to environmental protests – is met with repression and brutality.
The official Chinese media said: “The regulation prohibits the use of religion as a tool to sabotage national security, social order
or China’s education system, or to damage ethnic unity or carry out terrorist activities.” This reflects China’s intention to add ideas and notions of ‘state security’, ‘religious extremism’ and ‘terrorism’
to the law, thereby linking religious activity directly to politically charged crimes. Thus, in conflating the law with these, the regulation will give scope for the penalization of almost any peaceful expression of Tibetan identity, acts of non-violent dissent,
or criticism of ethnic or religious policies. Chinese authorities have already been clamping down on normal Tibetan religious activities by maintaining that these are ‘separatists’ or that they disrupt social order. This regulation will lead to
an even more repressive situation — particularly in Tibet — that violates international human rights standards.
Tibet was absorbed about 800 years ago during the Yuan Dynasty, becoming an inseparable
part of China. It has not been a country since and no country has ever recognised Tibet as an independent state.
From 1950 to 1959 China peacefully liberated and democratically reformed Tibet, ending the old feudal serfdom where brutality was rife;
a hell on earth with the backwards masses enslaved by landlords and priests. This culminated in Serf Emancipation Day in March 1959 when the Tibetan government was declared illegal.
Since China peacefully liberated Tibet it has seen glorious development:
There has also been huge investment in infrastructure, jobs, housing, schools and hospitals.
The Free Tibet movement is supported by Western anti-China forces. Human rights are China’s internal affair and Westerners who have never been to Tibet
have no right to speak against China’s policies.
China and India have renewed a war of words over the north-eastern Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, a Tibetan Himalayan region claimed by Beijing, after China said it would
‘standardise’ six place names in the ‘Disputed’ territory.
The announcement of the new Romanised spellings for three towns and three mountain passes by China’s ministry of civil affairs is the country’s latest move
to stake its claim over an area that came under formal Indian control in a series of 19th-century boundary agreements between The Manchu Qing Empire and The British Government in India.
India responded on Thursday by insisting that Arunachal Pradesh
was ‘an integral part’ of India. ‘Nothing can change that’, the foreign ministry in New Delhi said. “We have an established bilateral mechanism to discuss the boundary question with China and it has made progress. We seek a fair,
reasonable and mutually acceptable solution to the boundary question.”
Beijing’s current claims over Arunachal Pradesh — which it calls South Tibet — rest on its control over the rest of Tibet, the vast mountain territory it
invaded and seized in 1950. The decision to release new names follows a dispute over a visit to a Buddhist monastery in Arunachal this month by the Dalai Lama, the Tibetan spiritual leader who lives in exile in India.
Chinese foreign ministry spokesman
Lu Kang said the ‘standardisation’ was in line with Chinese regulations on the management of geographical names: “These names reflect from another angle that China’s territorial claim over South Tibet is supported by clear evidence
in terms of history, culture and administration.”